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Cerebellar Abiotrophy In Arabian Horses

Breeders experience with CA. Told in their words.

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GS ARROW RANCHES STORY

This story is to inform everyone that Cerebellar Abiotrophy (CA) is true, real, and heartbreaking and can happen to everyone breeding Arabians…

This is our story.   We are very small breeding operation…   We have 3 mares and one stallion.  We have only had 3 purebred foals ourselves.  Our stallion (PS Final Edition) does have 5 total purebred foals.  We had a chance to use a nice mare (SPA MZ Katrina) with comparable lines to our stallion so we did.  We get her in foal woohoo. Wait a whole year yes I mean a whole year as the mare went over.  We get a nice filly (GS Yesha Mishkin).  We just love her and her pedigree is nice older lines.  So, we breed the mare back.  Next year a very nice filly nicer than her older sis at this age (GS Aesha Zaphina).  Luckily, it was late in the year so we decided to leave the mare open for 09.  We wean the filly at 4 months.  Right up till weaning she was fine….  About a week into weaning I noticed she was having small head tremors.  I figured she was just having a hard time with weaning, as she was younger than I liked for weaning but mare was getting thin and baby was very healthy.  She finely gets over “Where’s the Momma?”.

So I put her in with her older sister for the winter.   All this time I keep thinking she is not getting better but worse…   Now, her symptoms are front legs out, head below withers, her head and upper part of her neck shake all the time and when she moves she is very stiff in the upper part of her front legs. Plus when she gets up from laying down she gets up with her hind first pushes front legs out stands at a bow stance, shaking then slowly brings her front legs one by one into position.  Her tremors are so noticeable that non-horse people notice. About this time I see a small article on CA.  So I start researching.  It all comes back to CA.  I contact Cecilia Penedo At UC Davis.  She informs me that it is very likely she has CA.  In go the tests.  Back come the tests.  Zaphina is an AFFECTED CA filly. Yesha is a Carrier. Of course our stallion and the mare are carriers.  For us it is what to do now?   We will have Zaphina put down After I get good pics and videos of her so people can learn this is a very real thing.  As per our breeding well I am not sure cause on Jan. 27, 2009 we lost our Arab pinto stallion to colic.  I can say this we will test from now on……   I am giving a general background about myself just to inform people that I am not new to horses.  I have had horses for over 30 years…  We have been breeding for 13 years mostly 1/2s. We show and trail ride.  I was in 4-H and have worked on several breeding farms in my years. I also work part time at a vet clinic.  I am not looking for sympathy I am just informing people that Cerebellar Abiotrophy (CA) is true and real.  Do yourself a favor and your future foals test before you bred this spring.

Written by Trina Gifford 2/2/2009

ArabianLines Forum

 

Montana: (USA)

I currently own a filly affected with CA. Her case is mild enough  that I have  not chosen to put her down, even though she will never  be ridable. But I want to  encourage everyone to learn more about  this genetic disease and to do what you  can to help. It is appalling  to watch a young horse repeatedly fall down, run  into fences,  run over people and have trouble with tasks as simple as eating  a  treat from your hand. ...Also, it's an odd disease because it varies in severity and it not  usually  present at birth. My filly did not exhibit symptoms anyone  noticed until she was  a yearling, and this was also true of another  filly I know of.

 

Justine (England)

Some years ago I bred a filly foal  with CA.

The  first thing I noticed, that when the mare was  foaling, it was a very slow  process although a normal birth. These  small things I always take particular  notice and make a note for  future reference.

The filly was born, all looked  ok.

Two  hours later the foal was still on the floor with no attempt to move,  I started to have suspicions this foal was not normal. We decided  to help the  foal up, from this time took 7 hours to find the milk  (which can be normal).  Suck reflex was normal.

The following  morning I noticed the foal had a very  slight wobble of the head  when focusing on something. I called the vet, I think  he thought  I was just being paranoid at this early stage, it was probably the  fact that the foals eyesight was not yet perfect.

I watched  carefully over  the next hours. Upon waking from a very deep sleep,  the foal got up, not front  end first but back end first!

Out  comes my veterinary book.

It looked very  much like CA. 3 vet  opinions later, it was diagnosed.

Dr. Knottenbelt at  Liverpool  University (GB) was very interested in this case. We made videos  and  experimented with small tests, for example - throwing a carrot  into the paddock  to see what the response would be. In the beginning  the reponse was more or less  normal, look suprised, and investigate.

As  weeks went on the front leg action  was becoming very exagereted  and balance was becoming more and more difficult.  We already knew  the fate of the foal and decided as long as she was sucking and  not in danger of hurting herself we would keep her alive for the  mothers  sake.

At three months old she began to fall into fences,  the carrot test was  still a suprised look but she could not make  her way to investigate, she wanted  to but her legs would not go  in the direction she wanted. This was sad, we named  the day for  her to go to sleep. Upon the request of Dr Knottenbelt we travelled  the foal to the university in a trailer deep in straw so that  she couldnt hurt  herself, she stood all the way and loved her  back stratching, she was not at all  stressed about leaving her  dam. Did she know? we cant tell.

On arrival at the  university  she hapilly walked out of the trailer with my arms around her body  guiding her direction. We put her in a recovery stable with cushioned  floor and  walls, where vets watched her eat hay, drink water and  study her reactions,  again she was under no stress, she was a  happy little soul.

A few hours later  she was put to sleep.  The post-mortem showed the cerebrem had not grown, the  rest of  the brain had. CA. ....Forgot to  say, her growth rate was normal.

Her name was  `poppy`, bless  her.

 

Vygoda: (United Arab Emirates)

Once you have seen a CA foal, and  its progress, you  can never mistake it for anything else.

 

Over  many years but not recently,  I have seen 5 foals with CA, the  first one that I bred of all English lines that  was diagnosed  as a wobbler. This foal was perfect when born, and by 4 months old  had a nodding head and leg disfunction that became increasingly  worse rapidly  leading it to have no control and banging into things  as described. The  diagnosis was queried with the vets and on autopsy  was found to have CH, now  known as CA.

 

The second one was  of Russian lines and the colt evidenced  it when it was 2 years  old – not bred by me for what difference it makes – but  nowhere  as bad as the foal mentioned above.

 

The other 3 that I have  seen  were abroad and of English or American or French lines or  combinations, all  foals. How do you tell an owner what you feel  is wrong with the foal - that was  very difficult to do as they  had not noticed it.

 

www.straightegyptians.com Forum

 

Nancy  Bourque/Ibriz Arabians (Canada)

We also had a cerebellar foal. It was when we were first raising  Arabians. We  bought a western pleasure champion who was very heavy  in Raffles bloodlines and  bred her to a Padron/ Fadur stallion.  The foal was fine at birth but we noticed  a week or so later on  that she seemed disoriented and if you touched her she  would startle  and run into the wall...The symtoms started appearing at about two days of age and got progressively  worse... Outside, she would just wander around the  mare and act like she was unaware of what was going on around  her. We had the  vet for her, took her to a clinic etc and after  checking out things they said it  was cerebellar hypoplasia. My  vet brought me a lot of literature to read on it.  At three months  we put the foal down. She had gone as far as she could. It  seemed  such a shame because she ate well and looked like a normal foal  but it  was obvious she couldn't continue on the way she was going.

 

The  mare had  had about 8 foals and was 18 when she foaled this filly.  She had never had  another cerebellar foal. I understand from the  reading that I did that the trait  is recessive and has to be present  in both sire and dam to produce an affected  foal. One in four,  approximately, will have the disease, two will be carriers  and  one will be disease free. After all of this I checked up on what  the other  daughters of this mare produced and heard some stories  about foals born who died  in a strange manner so I assume that  some of the other daughters were carriers  as well. The stallion  owner is aware of what happened to the foal but she denies  that  her horse is a carrier.

 

The vet told me not to stop breeding the mare but to use wisdom  in choosing a  stallion for her. Of course, not knowing who was  a carrier was a problem. And,  people don't always want to tell  you if these foals have been produced... I rebred the mare to another stallion and have a daughter, now  13. She appears  normal but I have never bred her. The mare had  several other daughters before I  got her and I have heard through  the grapevine that one of them has also  produced at least one  of these foals. In the hope of finding a cure or  preventative  for this horrible disease I would be pleased to help in any way  I  can.

 

Cherie:

I have a foal I believe is affected also.

Like you she appeared  normal at  birth but after a couple of weeks I noticed she was  a bit wobbly. I initially  put this down to size (She was extremely  tall). But as the weeks have progressed  it is becoming more apparent.

This  mare is Egyptian/Spanish though and she  has had 9 other perfectly  normal healthy foals.

It is so sad as the baby is  the friendliest  little soul

 

aliaalhussein (Jordan)

I am happy to say we have had such a foal but understand that it  is like SCID in  that both parents have to carriers of the gene  and the odds for a foal to  inherit it fatally are the same as  for SCID, 25%,if both parents ARE carriers.

 

bterlaan: (Germany)

I remember a breeding program in NL, about 20 years ago, that was  plagued by  what we called "head-shaking" (schuddebollen). The  owners thought they could  trace it to a certain line on which  they had based their program. They stopped  with the line, had  the stallions gelded and kept the mares (I think) to prevent  further  breeding and started a completely new program based on other lines.  I  call that very courageous and have great respect for that decision.

 

Emma Maxwell: (England & France)

I haven't seen a suspect in over ten years although I have seen  it four or five  times in several of the major blood lines. All  the foal cases I saw followed a  distinctive pattern of behaviour  which I will try to describe. The very first  time it became apparent  was between 3 and 4 months and was always a response to  a startle.  I still watch very carefully when I disturb a sleeping foal of that  age into leaping to its feet, becuase the affected foals just  show a little  tremor or wobble of the head as they achieve their  standing balance. This  becomes undoubtedly more obvious over the  next couple of months and while the  foal may move perfectly OK  when it is in control, it shows an increasingly more  marked head  wag, developing into a stagger when it is surprised. Apart from  waking them up, the other time to watch is when they are have  just been put in  the field and their mother gallops off and they  have to decide to follow at top  speed, when the same tremors and  staggers appear. I have seen one suspected  adult case (in Brazil  1986) in a large herd of horses which was very disturbing  as the  poor mare tried to gallop up an imaginary hill when her field mates  ran  away across the flat field. She ended up going over backwards  and was completely  'drunken' in all her movements.

 

ElAcrisi: (Switzerland)

HERE NOW MY STORY:

 

When it happend in 92 I had 4 foals they  had been very  healthy and very well done. All have been from a  new stallion I used.

From  the motherside I used differnt stallions  before, in first to 2nd generation and  have never had a problem  before. My foundation mare is 50% spanish, 25%  Sahmeth/Marbach  and 25% Karmin (polish).

 

The way my foundation mare was  bred I used all this different bloodlines by different stallions  to find out  what kind of bloodlines will fit best in this female  line. So I did with her  daughters. As I mentionend never problems  before using my foundation mare and 2  of her daughters and a granddaughter  for this 4 l992 foals.

 

One night,  around midnight, fullmoon,  I went to the pastern to check and to sit beside the  horses -  it was around June, July and very warm. The horses had been on a  pastern day and night and drinking water out of pond where the  waterflow was not  very high - just by a little river came fresh  water in when it was raining.  Later the farmers around told me  they let never let drink their cows out of this  pond - the water  quality should not be a good one - I lived rather new in this  aerea.

 

All  4 foals (4 weeks up to 2 month) had been laying on they hay  and  what I felt was that they had been all 4 very cold bodies. This  was just a  feeling but as a vet all my instincts had been activated.

 

So  I stood on  the pastern for more than an hour and observed them.  After this hour I felt I  have to bring the foals to the stable  because I felt something is wrong with  them. They came in and  I felt they are a kind of somnolent. They had been  drinking milk  but all 4 foals temperature was around 35 degrees, so way much to  deep for a warm summernight. I was elecrified. The next day the  same but all  bloodsamples I checked had been normal, also liver  enzyms. Also the one year old  filly was a kind of somnolent but  was eating and also here the blood was normal.  I started tho phone  around the world because I had no idea about what kind of  disease  it could be (U Newmarket, U Davis, U Aukland and all horse vets  and  breeders I knew).

As I lived in a kind of protected aerea  a lot of  spectactors walked by each nice weekend - so I never  knew if maybe someone gave  the horses something to eat.

 

I  called a professional for botanics to  check the environment for  dangerouse plants, We found horsetail and treated the  horses but  nothing changed.

After a couple of days the liver enzymes raised  up but not extremly but significant enough. 2 of the foals and  the yearling  filly had been ok after a couple of days the oldest  filly and the last borne  stood ok by blood but not by physics.  The filly got this soldier type high  legged walk and a little  tremor, also the youngest who had more problems with  the balance.

I  went to the University hospital in Zurich but they couldn't  help  and had also no idea. After that I called the Univerity of Berne  and they  want me to bring my horses but how could I bring 4 mares  and 4 foals because  they also had no idea about the symptoms I  explained. But technically it wasn't  possible so one of their  chief assistants came by to see the horses and he also  had no  idea about what it could be. So we decided that I bring my oldest  and  worsest filly so they can check her at U Bern. I did. A week  later they told me  they cannot find something and for all my other  horses I should give my ok to  put her down.

 

I'm a vet too, but also a breeder, so I'm interested in what can  be the source  of this illness:

- genetic and then from where  is it comming and how can we  try to breed it out or

-can it  have also other origins than genetics that  causes in the endresult  the same disease.

- can it be a combination of some  circumstances  they come together.

 

What we know as CA in foals is there [ in human medicine ] known as subacute cerebellum  degeneration  with Purkinje cell loss (exactely the same histopathology  like our CA!)

Origin:

Autoimmun antibodyies are doing an  autoimmunreaktion against the  34-KD-Proteins of Purkinje cells  what they kill and it comes to the Cerebellum  Abiotrophy.

In  human medicin studies they had in some cases the possibility  to  make visible the autoreactive Immunoglobulines on the surface of  the  purkinje cells.

Often it is also in connection with tumoractivity  somewhere.  Isn't this an interessting new link to think  about?

 

szedlisa: (Spain & USA)

In my own experience having bred a mare  which showed obvious neurological  symptoms as an 18 month old filly, it was diagnosed at that time  ( late 70s) as  either a grass sickness or a vitamin E deficiency.  And as the filly had been one  of the first imports from Spain,  who knows what she could have been exposed to,  or what might have  happened during travel. Spain's borders had been closed for so  long  that really little was known about their horses and even less about  how  they were raised.

 

Leased out, then sold to the lessee  the filly grew up  and was used as a broodmare. She produced two  extremely athletic high quality  foals which went onwards to win  Regional and National honors under saddle in the  USA.. She further  produced several very good daughters some of which were used  for  breeding. Absolutely no symptoms present. Then BINGO, one severely  affected  foal which was put down within weeks of birth. By this  time Cerebellar  Hypoplasia had been differentiated from Cerebellar  Abiotrophy and the vets were  called in again. With the suggestion  of Michael Bowling to consider CA, the vets  and the then owners  considered this new approach. The original imported  filly/mare  was to be considered a CA mare and the new born foal an affected  foal.

 

Still CA had not been proven as an autosomal recessive.  Not all  but a few of the mare's daughters were used for breeding  both purebreds and half  breds, producing stunning foals in both  divisions with equally impressive show  records. We all sighed  with relief. One of these producing daughters, years  later at  the age of 13, showed symptoms including the head ntention tremors.  She  was prompty euithanized. A few years later, a son of one of  the daughters, sired  a CA foal out of a Spanish / Crabbet cross  mare. His only affected foal out of  several sired but he was gelded.  Was this turning out to be a recessive  gene?

 

Information  on CA was extremely limited. Yes there had been studies  done and  the results published . Nonetheless the every day vet either had  forgotten the brief description during vet school or simply was  not considering  CA. By this time Ann Bowling had welll provn that  this condition was a genetic  mode of inheritance with her test  herd of CA arabians at UC Davis.[1985]  Her studies,  unfortunately were  not published prior to her sudden unexpected death.; however  an  autosomal recessive was highly suspected and a sex-linked (X) mode  of  inheritance was rulled out.

 

It was about this time  that one of the  daughters of the original mare, produced a foal  herself with CA symptoms,  unfortunately in an area where the vets  did not consider CA as a possibility and  treated it for everything  under the sun at great expence. To no avail. This is  when I was  contacted as the breeder of the original mare and actually when  I  became aware of the existance of cerebellar abiotrophy...a short  7 years ago.

 

Apparently the foal showed a distinct lack  of balance, and fell over  backwards frequently. At first its owner  thought it was just a question of  getting its very long legs properly  organized. The foal was nursing well;  started to tuck into its  grain with no problem; ran and played with the other  foals; all  in all behaving just like any other foal . It was big and did not  seem to have a very good "stop" on itself, as it often did a one  point landing  into fences and any other solid object. Big eyed,  gorgeous to look at, and  really tall, it started to have these  little accidents more and more frequently  around 4 months of age.  Then the head intention tremors started...at first with  only an  occassional slight shaking which got more pronouced as it got older.  The  owner went through a heart wrenching time as the foal worsened  and finally the  decision was made to euthanized it. Those little  accidents had become serious  and involved multiple stichings,  antibiotics and 7/24 care.

 

The whole  proccedure was heart  breaking. Anyone who has experienced a CA foal will 1)  recognize  the symptoms in the future and 2) will never want to go through  it  again. The foal described above was just starting its hypermetric  mode of  action...an exaggerated way of walking and running. It  was as if it were  galloping up a hill (only on a flat area) and  then reach a point where it would  fall over to the side or backwards.  At a walk when under stress , each step  would get higher and higher  as if it were climbing up stairs. Again on a flat  piece of ground.  The leg shoots out from the elbow very similar to the  goose-step  marching stance of some miilitary forces. In fact the CA foals walk  like a goose, a rather stiff-legged gait with the heel of the  hoof slamming into  the ground first as it comes down.

 

Lets  get some more descriptions  posted, those samples sent and enough  information into the hands of the  researchers so that a test can  be developed and none of us have to go through  this with our horses.

 

I  know I never want to again!

 

 

 

AWhiteHorse Forum

 

TrailsendArabians: (USA)

I have a 12 month old filly that started showing signs of a wobbler  in the last  month. I had put her into halter training in March  , and the trainer noticed a  few things mid-May. I'm a veterinarian,  and we had another vet come out, and we  both concurred that she  looked like a wobbler, so we did some neck films. We  thought we  could see something at C5-6, which was consistent with the clinical  signs at that time, so we thought we had the diagnosis in the  can.

 

Just  to make sure I was giving her every chance, as  some wobblers will improve with  dietary changes or need surgery,  I made an appointment for her to see one of my  favorite instructors  at my alma mater for evaluation and discussion on when we  might  need to consider surgery. My trainer was keeping her for me meanwhile,  as  it was a couple weeks before I could get her in.

 

I  picked her up from  the trainer's two mornings ago, and the trainer  mentioned she was seeing her  head shake. My heart dropped to my  shoes when I saw my filly, as that indicates  the lesion is much  higher than we had thought. I thought and made mental lists  of  diseases through the entire 350 mile trip in the pouring rain. It  was a very  short list.

 

Upon arrival, my instructor looked,  we chatted, and he went  to find another instructor (whom I also  knew), a resident, and a neurologist,  who is one of the best in  the field and whom I also knew. We all -- that makes  FIVE veterinarians,  three of whom are boarded specialists in three different  areas  -- are 99% sure she has CA.

 

There is no antemortem diagnosis  available. I am getting into contact with UCD; I am on the east  coast and have  to wait until they wake up.  An EPM test on spinal fluid is pending --  that is our  last hope that she has a weird presentation of EPM  -- but the spinal fluid is  normal otherwise. It could be acquired  and not genetic, but I'm hoping UCD can  help me find out more  there. It's also a little unusual in that clinical signs  did not  start until she was 11+ months old, as usually they appear around  6  months, but they may know more on that too.

 

My girl  is home for good  now. She can get around and doesn't fall, but  she trips if the ground is uneven.  Her intention tremors are mostly  noticeable when she is focusing on something.  We have no idea  if her clinical signs will stabilize, if she will continue to  deteriorate  at this rate, or what. I have no idea of how long I have with her,  but every day is a gift. I know eventually I will have to put  this filly down.

 

What I am looking for is information  on the day-to-day dealings with a  CA horse; my glib advice to  owners is now ringing hollow.   I'm also flat-out scared that this is going  to destroy  my fledgling breeding program, and that of my filly's  sire's owner, if it does  turn out to be a genetic form and not  acquired. This filly's pedigree reads like  a National Champion's  Who's Who with no mention of one horse I had previously  heard  of being a possible problem. I thought I was safe.

 

A Black Horse Forum

 

Lovemypinto: (USA)

About 5 years ago, a gal at the barn had a mare that foaled a filly.  These same  symtoms appeared just about the time of the weaning.  The head had a knodding  like shake....that is the only way I can  describe it. The filly was diagnosed by  a local vet, he put the  filly thru some tests, one as I remember that was  explained to  me they blindfolded the filly and she couldn't maintain her  balance.  Another test was turning her ( I believe still blindfolded) and  the  filly couldn't stay standing up. I wasn't there...this part  was told to me and  it was 5 years ago this happened. The vet felt  strongly that it may be  CA...Filly was taken to Oregon State Vet  school. They confirmed the diagnosis,  filly put down. A post was  done...all the test done...confirmed. It was a very  sad affair,  owner devastated needless to say.  The worst  part about it was this was  a really nice filly, seriously nice filly.

 

Joni Hyrick: (USA)

This has opened up a heartbreak for me almost 1/2 of my lifetime  ago. My first  Arabian horse was purchased as a weany. When she  was 5, I bred her to a local  western NY stallion (both pedigrees  attached).

I was so very "horse poor" at  that age, and put  everything into a $300.00 stud fee, all the best feed and  care,  and when her foal was born on Mother's day in 1984, we waited anxiously  for the foal to get up. He couldn't. He'd try, but all he could  do was spin  himself around in circles. I took emergency time off  from work and slept at the  barn. I got up every 2 hours, milked  the mare, and fed the foal. I paid for  several different vet opinions,  and no one knew what the problem was. We could  pick him up and  sometimes he could balance. He would always need to have his  head  down for balance, and his front leg's would lift up in a very strange  way.  We brought the mare and foal to Cornell University where  the head veterinarian  at that time felt the foal had Cerebeller  Abiotrophy. He asked permission to  call all the vet students to  observe the movements of the foal as we held him  and let him try  and walk. He'd occasionally flip over backwards if he got going  to fast. I had no choice but to euthanize the foal.

 

They  told me that as  sad as it was, could they perform an autopsy and  perhaps use some autopy photos  in future textbooks if the diagnosis  was confirmed. The letter from Dr. de  Lahunta is attached as well  as a photo of "the little gipper", and the related  pedigrees.  Perhaps you can start a database reference which can assist someone  else in the future.

 

We kept the mare and foal in the arena  to keep the  foal from injuring himself in the stall. He was only  a few weeks old when I lost  him.

 

Additionally, after I  received the letter, I forwarded it to Jack  Bridgman (the owner  of the stallion). He refused to believe his stallion had  anything  to do with the foals death (though I learned later they lost another  foal under similar circumstances, but never had an autopsy done).  He refused to  refund me the breeding money, but said I could have  a re-breeding! I couldn't  believe anyone would be that way. I  had extensive veterinary bills, AND now I  couldn't even get the  stud fee back.

 

I hope this information helps  someone else.  Joni

 

Attached File(s)

  CerebellarAbiotrophy.jpg ( 184.11k ) Number  of downloads: 188

  BelNegor.jpg ( 170.33k ) Number  of downloads:  271

  VelzaddadPedigree.jpg ( 170.51k ) Number  of  downloads: 234

  TheLittleGipper.jpg ( 39.25k ) Number  of  downloads: 136

 

Donna B (USA)

I have a friend who's stallion produced two CA foals. As soon as  they figured  out what the problem was they gelded the stallion  and have turned him into a  wonderful performance gelding. I am  sure they would be happy to get hair samples  from him and the  mares and send them in.

 

mmarabians (USA)

As a breeder of ONE CA foal, I would agree with staying focused  with both a & b. It is a heartbreaking disease. Been there,  experienced  that.

 

[a) Become more aware of the causes and symptoms of CA so we can  all help spot  animals who might be affected and help them be accurately  diagnosed.

b)  Help support efforts to increase funding  for DNA research so that we get a test  for this thing ASAP.]

 

HOWEVER, I have bred 100+ foals, using  the same bloodlines and have  NEVER produced another foal with  the same problem. And, with the affected foal,  it was a complete  outcross stallion, from the mare lines. But, I only look at 8  generations  back.

 

The only solution is to develop a CARRIER test. My  one  experience was devastating to me, with 10 broodmares. The  other two posters,  with 1 broodmare, have stopped them in their  tracks! Thank heavens I am not in  their shoes.

 

I am concerned  that Resolutions proposed, will BURY this  lethal disease. A very  large % of the affected foals may be hidden. Develop the  carrier  test, educate and take away the fear., like we did with SCID.

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